North Myrtle Beach, SC Tax Controversy CPA

J. Frank Best a North Myrtle Beach, SC Tax Controversy CPA  with locations in North Myrtle Beach & Myrtle Beach, SC and Wilmington & Raleigh, NC is rated in the Top 5 Tax Controversy CPA Profiles/Linkedin and as a United States Tax Court Litigator licensed in all States works to stay current on all IRS decisions concerning tax litigation to ensure we are fully informed and prepared for our clients.

Telephone 800.230.7090   Email: bestcpa@bestirscpa.com  Web: bestirscpa.com

“Serious IRS Problem Resolution”/J. Frank Best, Tax Controversy CPA/U. S. Tax Court Litigator

Serious IRS Problem Resolutions

J. Frank Best is rated in the Top 5 Tax Controversy CPA Profiles/Linkedin and is a United States Tax Court Litigator licensed in all States and works to stay current on all IRS decisions concerning tax litigation to ensure we are fully informed and prepared for our clients.

Telephone 800.230.7090   Email: bestcpa@bestirscpa.com  Web: bestirscpa.com

Divorce Legal Fees/J. Frank Best, Tax Controversy CPA/U. S. Tax Court Litigator

A recent Tax Court decision was reported dealing with IRS Divorce Legal Fees.  J.  Frank Best, Tax Controversy CPA/U. S. Tax Court Litigator in Raleigh and Wilmington, NC  & North Myrtle Beach and Myrtle Beach, SC works to stay current on all IRS decisions concerning tax litigation to ensure we are fully informed and prepared for our clients.  

Legal Fees Relating to Status of Investment Fund Distributions in Divorce Were Not Deductible Business Expenses

The Tax Court held legal fees that a taxpayer incurred in a divorce proceeding to defend his ownership of investment fund distributions, which he received after his former wife had filed for divorce but before the date the divorce was granted, were not deductible as expenses related to a business or income producing activity. The Tax Court applied the “origin of the claim” test under U.S. v. Gilmore, 372 U.S. 39 (1963) and found that the fees were personal and nondeductible because the former wife’s claim to the distributions originated entirely from the marriage. Lucas v. Comm’r, T.C. Memo. 2018-80.

Tax Court’s Decision

The Tax Court held that Mr. Lucas’s legal and professional fees were nondeductible personal expenses. The court reasoned that but for the marriage, Ms. Lucas would have had no claim to Mr. Lucas’s interest in Vicis. The court further found that Hahn did not apply because, while the fees in that case were business connected, Mr. Lucas’s legal fees had no connection to Vicis’s investment advisory business. Rather, they were incurred defending his ownership and distributions from equitable distribution in the divorce.

Mr. Lucas failed to demonstrate that the expenses were otherwise deductible, in the Tax Court’s view. The court concluded that Mr. Lucas was neither pursuing alimony nor resisting an attempt to interfere with his ongoing business activities as in Liberty Vending. The court found that Mr. Lucas engaged in little trade or business activity in 2010 or 2011, as Vicis began liquidating in 2009 and thereafter he engaged in no business activity other than a limited management role with Vicis. Mr. Lucas did not, in the view of the Tax Court, establish that Ms. Lucas’s claim related to the winding down of Vicis, or that the fees incurred to defeat her claim were ordinary and necessary to his trade or business.

Offer in Compromise/J. Frank Best, Tax Controversy CPA/U. S. Tax Court Litigator

A recent Tax Court decision was reported dealing with Offer-in-Compromise and IRS Abuse of Discretion.  J.  Frank Best, Tax Controversy CPA/U. S. Tax Court Litigator in Raleigh and Wilmington, NC  & North Myrtle Beach and Myrtle Beach, SC works to stay current on all IRS decisions concerning tax litigation to ensure we are fully informed and prepared for our clients.  

Lawyer’s Failure to Provide Required Info Precludes Offer-in-Compromise: In Solny v. Comm’r, T.C. Memo. 2018-71, the Tax Court sustained a proposed collection action by the IRS against a lawyer who had outstanding tax liabilities of almost $200,000. The court noted that at his collection due process hearing, the lawyer sought a collection alternative but did not supply any of the required forms or necessary financial information and thus it was not an abuse of discretion for the IRS to reject collection alternatives and sustain the collection action.

The Tax Court Concluded: Finding no abuse of discretion in any respect, the Tax Court will granted summary judgment for respondent and affirm the proposed collection action. The Court noted that petitioner is free to submit to the IRS at any time, for its consideration and possible acceptance, a collection alternative in the form of an offer-in compromise or Installment Agreement, supported by the necessary financial information.

Trust Fund Recovery Penalty & IRS Abuse of Discretion/J. Frank Best, CPA/U.S. Tax Court Litigator-Raleigh & Wilmington, NC North Myrtle Beach & Myrtle Beach, SC

Trust Fund Recovery Penalty & IRS Abuse of Discretion. J. Frank Best, Tax Controversy CPA/U.S. Tax Court Litigator. Rated  in Top 5 Tax Controversy CPA Profiles/Linkedin.com. More than 30 years experience. Representation for NC, SC, & All States. PHONE. 800.230.7090  WEB: bestirscpa.com  Email: bestcpa@bestirscpa.com

United States Tax Court Decision for the Week-Trust Fund Recovery Penalty & IRS Abuse of Discretion

A recent Tax Court decision was reported dealing with Trust Fund Recovery Penalty and IRS Abuse of Discretion.  J.  Frank Best, Certified Public Accountant and United States Tax Court Litigator in Raleigh, Wilmington, NC & North Myrtle Beach and Myrtle Beach, SC works to stay current on all IRS decisions concerning tax litigation to ensure we are fully informed and prepared for our clients.  

Hearing Officer Not Required to Substantively Analyze Supervisor’s Approval of Trust Fund Recovery Penalty. No IRS Abuse of Discretion.

The Tax Court held that there was no abuse of discretion by a settlement officer (SO) in a collections due process hearing where the SO determined that a computer-generated IRS record showing a supervisor’s printed name but not the supervisor’s signature was sufficient evidence of IRS supervisory approval. The Tax Court found that the SO was not required to analyze the thought process of the approving supervisor but only to verify that the supervisor approved in writing the initial determination of the penalty. Blackburn v. Comm’r, 150 T.C. No. 9 (2018).

Beginning in 2000, Emergency Response Training, Inc. (ERT) fell behind on its employment tax liabilities. Specifically, ERT failed to file a number of Forms 941, Employer’s Quarterly Federal Tax Return, or satisfy numerous self-reported employment tax liabilities during 2000 through 2011.

In 2012, Scott Blackburn and another individual were determined by the IRS to be responsible persons and an IRS revenue officer asserted trust fund recovery penalties (TFRPs) against them. At the time, Senior Revenue Officer Janet Reed was the manager of the officer who made the initial TFRP determination. Later in 2012, the revenue officer changed her determination regarding the second individual’s TFRP liability and submitted a request for supervisory approval to assert TFRP liabilities against Blackburn. A Form 4183, Recommendation re: Trust Fund Recovery Penalty Assessment, was generated showing Reed’s approval of the TFRP determination against Blackburn. The computer-generated Form 4183 did not contain Reed’s signature but showed her name in the supervisor signature block. In November 2012, the IRS assessed TFRP liabilities against Blackburn for the fourth quarter of 2003 and the fourth quarter of 2004. After a collections due process hearing, a settlement officer (SO) upheld the TFRP assessment.

Blackburn appealed the SO’s decision in the Tax Court. He did not contest his liability for the TFRP, but argued that the SO had failed to fulfill the requirement under Code Sec. 6330(c)(1) to verify that the IRS had fulfilled all of its legal and procedural requirements. Blackburn reasoned that under Code Sec. 6751(b)(1), the IRS may not assess a penalty unless an IRS supervisor has personally approved the determination in writing; supervisory approval is part of the IRS’s burden of production under Graev v. Comm’r, 149 T.C. No. 23 (2017). According to Blackburn, the SO’s verification responsibility required a meaningful review, including a factual analysis of the supervisor’s thought process, and he argued that by relying solely on the Form 4183 to verify that a supervisor approved the TFRP determination, the SO did not fulfill the Code Sec. 6330(c)(1) verification requirement. The IRS filed for summary judgment, arguing that Code Sec. 6751(b)(1) does not apply to a TFRP assessment and that even if it did, the Form 4183 fulfilled that requirement.

The Tax Court ruled in favor of the IRS, finding that the SO properly verified the assessment of the TFRP. The Tax Court held that Code Sec. 6330(c)(1) does not require an analysis of the thought process of the approving supervisor under Code Sec. 6751(b), but rather verification that the supervisor approved in writing the initial determination of the penalty. The Tax Court explained that, because it found no abuse of discretion regarding verification of compliance with Code Sec. 6751(b), it did not need to address the legal question of whether Code Sec. 6751(b) applies to the TFRP.

In the Tax Court’s view, Blackburn was arguing that the SO’s verification responsibility under Code Sec. 6330(c)(1) included making a determination of a meaningful approval of the merits of the liability. The Tax Court found no case law support for requiring a substantive review of the SO’s thought process. Rather, the court found that the SO’s review of the administrative steps taken before assessment is accepted as adequate under Code Sec. 6330 as long as there is supporting documentation in the administrative record. Imposing the requirement of a substantive review on the SO would, in the view of the Tax Court, allow the taxpayer to avoid the limitations of pursuing the underlying liability in a CDP hearing and apply a level of detail in the verification process that had never previously been required.

The Tax Court found that the treatment of Form 4340, Certificate of Assessment and Payments, as presumptive evidence that a tax was validly assessed was an apt parallel to the issue regarding Form 4183. Form 4340 is used to prove that an assessment has been made and is considered presumptive proof of a valid assessment. The Tax Court explained that the IRS may rely on Form 4340 where the taxpayer has not shown any irregularity in the assessment procedure that would raise a question about the validity of an assessment. An assessment requires a signature and is made by an IRS officer’s signing the summary record of assessments; the officer’s signature is not required on the Form 4340. In the court’s view, even though Form 4183 does not have an actual signature, in the context of a review for abuse of discretion, its mere existence in the administrative record supports the SO’s verification.

The Tax Court found that it had consistently held in prior decisions that reliance on standard administrative records was acceptable to verify assessments. The court reasoned that Form 4183 was similar to Form 4340, which had previously been found to be an IRS record that reflected compliance with administrative procedures. Form 4183, in the court’s view, provided a similar mechanism to demonstrate supervisory approval. The Tax Court concluded that, regardless of whether supervisory approval was required before the TFRP assessment, a record of such prior approval was present in this case.

 

Innocent Spouse- Raleigh & Wilmington, NC North Myrtle Beach & Myrtle Beach, SC

IRS Innocent Spouse Relief. J. Frank Best, Tax Controversy CPA/U.S. Tax Court Litigator. Rated  in Top 5 Tax Controversy CPA Profiles/Linkedin.com. More than 25 years experience. Representation for NC, SC, & All States. PHONE. 800.230.7090  WEB: bestirscpa.com  Email: bestcpa@bestirscpa.com

 

Top 5 Tax Controversy CPA Profiles/Linkedin

J. Frank Best is rated in the Top 5 Tax Controversy CPA Profiles/Linkedin and is a United States Tax Court Litigator licensed in all States and works to stay current on all IRS decisions concerning tax litigation to ensure we are fully informed and prepared for our clients.

Telephone 800.230.7090   Email: bestcpa@bestirscpa.com

 

United States Tax Court Decision for the Week – You be the Judge

A recent Tax Court decision was reported that may be of interest to individuals potentially dealing with tax litigation. J. Frank Best, Certified Public Accountant and United States Tax Court Litigator works to stay current on all IRS decisions concerning tax litigation to ensure we are fully informed and prepared for our clients.

Former IRS Agent and Wife Liable for $73,000 in Fraud Penalties:In Langer v. Comm’r, T.C. Memo. 2017-92, the Tax Court held that a couple’s repeated concealment of income by overstating deductions on their 2011-2013 tax returns exemplified a pattern of fraudulent behavior and the couple was thus liable for fraud penalties of approximately $73,000. The court noted that the husband had been an IRS agent for more than 29 years and that the couple’s explanations regarding the deductions taken on their returns were implausible and unpersuasive.

UNITED STATES TAX COURT

T.C. Memo. 2017-92-CIVIL FRAUD

May 30, 2017.

HENRY LANGER AND PATRICIA LANGER, Petitioners v. COMMISSIONER OF INTERNAL REVENUE, Respondent

Docket No. 22719-15.

Thomas Edward Brever , for petitioners.

Christina L. Cook and John Schmittdiel , for respondent.

MEMORANDUM FINDINGS OF FACT AND OPINION

NEGA, Judge : Respondent issued a notice of deficiency to petitioners determining deficiencies in income tax and fraud penalties as follows:1

[*2]

                           Penalty

Year     Deficiency1     sec. 6663(a)

2011       $36,595        $27,446.25

2012        27,386         20,539.50

2013        33,689         25,266.75

__________

1The amounts referred to herein reflect an agreement by the parties to
revised deficiencies in Federal income tax as reflected on Form 5278,
Statement–Income Tax Changes, and are less than respondent’s initial
determinations in the notice of deficiency.

Petitioners conceded in full the deficiencies for tax years 2011-13. The only issue for decision is whether petitioners are liable for fraud penalties under section 6663 for tax years 2011-13.

FINDINGS OF FACT

Some of the facts are stipulated and are so found. The stipulation of facts and the attached exhibits are incorporated herein by this reference. Petitioners resided in Minnesota when the petition was timely filed.

Henry Langer was an Internal Revenue Service revenue agent for over 29 years and received training in determining allowable business expense deductions; he was also a certified forensic examiner. Petitioners have a history of claiming [*3] business expense deductions for obvious personal expenses and expenses they could not substantiate. See, e.g. , Langer v. Commissioner (Langer I ), T.C. Memo. 2008-255, 96 T.C.M. (CCH) 334, 339 (2008) (“[P]etitioners claimed as business expense deductions many obviously personal items . A former Internal Revenue Service agent should have known better .” (Emphasis added.)), aff’d without published opinion , 378 F. App’x 598 (8th Cir. 2010); Langer v. Commissioner (Langer II ), T.C. Memo. 1992-46, 63 T.C.M. (CCH) 1900 (1992), aff’d , 989 F.2d 294 (8th Cir. 1993); Langer v. Commissioner (Langer III ), T.C. Memo. 1990-268, 59 T.C.M. (CCH) 740, 746 (1990) (holding petitioners liable for an addition to tax under section 6653(a) for negligence because petitioners’ conduct suggested a “pattern of carelessness” and because petitioners used methods for determining deductions that had “no basis in the law”), aff’d , 980 F.2d 1198 (8th Cir. 1992).

Respondent disallowed $113,194, $67,186, and $84,087 of petitioners’ claimed deductions on Schedules C, Profit or Loss From Business, for 2011-13, respectively, as personal expenses; many of petitioners’ claimed and disallowed expense deductions were identical to those disallowed as personal expenses in Langer I and Langer II , including expenses for parties, gifts, flowers, vases, and holiday decorations, to name a few.

[*4] OPINION

The Commissioner must establish by clear and convincing evidence that, for each year at issue, an underpayment of tax exists and that some portion of the underpayment is due to fraud. Secs. 6663(a), 7454(a); Rule 142(b). The Commissioner must show that the taxpayer intended to conceal, mislead, or otherwise prevent the collection of taxes. Katz v. Commissioner , 90 T.C. 1130, 1143 (1988). The taxpayer’s entire course of conduct may establish the requisite fraudulent intent. Stone v. Commissioner , 56 T.C. 213, 223-224 (1971).

Petitioners conceded in full the deficiencies for 2011-13, and therefore respondent satisfied his burden of proving an underpayment of tax for each year at issue. Respondent established that, for each year at issue, petitioners’ underpayment of tax was fraudulent and that they intended to conceal taxable income and prevent the collection of tax by overstating deductions and claiming nondeductible and obvious personal expenditures as business expenses. See Rahall v. Commissioner , T.C. Memo. 2011-101, 101 T.C.M. (CCH) 1486, 1492 (2011) (“An additional badge of fraud includes a taxpayer disguising nondeductible personal expenditures as business expenses.”). Mr. Langer’s nearly 30 years of experience as a revenue agent and petitioners’ history before this Court for identical issues are relevant considerations in determining whether they had [*5] fraudulent intent. See Beaver v. Commissioner , 55 T.C. 85, 93-94 (1970) (stating that petitioner’s business experience is a relevant consideration in determining whether he had fraudulent intent). Petitioners’ repeated concealment of income by overstating deductions exemplifies a pattern of fraudulent behavior, and their explanations are implausible and unpersuasive. See McGraw v. Commissioner , 384 F.3d 965, 971 (8th Cir. 2004) (“[A] consistent pattern of sizeable underreporting of income * * * and unsatisfactory explanations for such underreporting also can establish fraud.”), aff’g Butler v. Commissioner , T.C. Memo. 2002-314; Sanchez v. Commissioner , T.C. Memo. 2014-174, at *17 (stating that “a pattern of conduct that evidences an intent to mislead” is one of the “badges of fraud” from which fraudulent intent can be inferred), aff’d , ___ F. App’x ___, 2016 WL 7336626 (9th Cir. Dec. 19, 2016); Bruce Goldberg, Inc. v. Commissioner , T.C. Memo. 1989-582, 58 T.C.M. (CCH) 519, 529 (1989) (“[F]raud may sometimes be inferred from a pattern of overstating deductions.”). Accordingly, petitioners are liable for the fraud penalties under section 6663 for all years at issue.

[*6] To reflect the foregoing,

Decision will be entered under Rule 155 .

Footnotes

1Unless otherwise indicated, all section references are to the Internal Revenue Code in effect for the taxable years at issue, and all Rule references are to the Tax Court Rules of Practice and Procedure.

[End of Document]

United States Tax Court Decision for the Week – You be the Judge

A recent Tax Court decision was reported that may be of interest to individuals potentially dealing with tax litigation. J. Frank Best, Certified Public Accountant and United States Tax Court Litigator works to stay current on all IRS decisions concerning tax litigation to ensure we are fully informed and prepared for our clients.

Former IRS Agent and Wife Liable for $73,000 in Fraud Penalties:In Langer v. Comm’r, T.C. Memo. 2017-92, the Tax Court held that a couple’s repeated concealment of income by overstating deductions on their 2011-2013 tax returns exemplified a pattern of fraudulent behavior and the couple was thus liable for fraud penalties of approximately $73,000. The court noted that the husband had been an IRS agent for more than 29 years and that the couple’s explanations regarding the deductions taken on their returns were implausible and unpersuasive.

UNITED STATES TAX COURT

T.C. Memo. 2017-92-CIVIL FRAUD

May 30, 2017.

HENRY LANGER AND PATRICIA LANGER, Petitioners v. COMMISSIONER OF INTERNAL REVENUE, Respondent

Docket No. 22719-15.

Thomas Edward Brever , for petitioners.

Christina L. Cook and John Schmittdiel , for respondent.

MEMORANDUM FINDINGS OF FACT AND OPINION

NEGA, Judge : Respondent issued a notice of deficiency to petitioners determining deficiencies in income tax and fraud penalties as follows:1

[*2]

                           Penalty

Year     Deficiency1     sec. 6663(a)

2011       $36,595        $27,446.25

2012        27,386         20,539.50

2013        33,689         25,266.75

__________

1The amounts referred to herein reflect an agreement by the parties to
revised deficiencies in Federal income tax as reflected on Form 5278,
Statement–Income Tax Changes, and are less than respondent’s initial
determinations in the notice of deficiency.

Petitioners conceded in full the deficiencies for tax years 2011-13. The only issue for decision is whether petitioners are liable for fraud penalties under section 6663 for tax years 2011-13.

FINDINGS OF FACT

Some of the facts are stipulated and are so found. The stipulation of facts and the attached exhibits are incorporated herein by this reference. Petitioners resided in Minnesota when the petition was timely filed.

Henry Langer was an Internal Revenue Service revenue agent for over 29 years and received training in determining allowable business expense deductions; he was also a certified forensic examiner. Petitioners have a history of claiming [*3] business expense deductions for obvious personal expenses and expenses they could not substantiate. See, e.g. , Langer v. Commissioner (Langer I ), T.C. Memo. 2008-255, 96 T.C.M. (CCH) 334, 339 (2008) (“[P]etitioners claimed as business expense deductions many obviously personal items . A former Internal Revenue Service agent should have known better .” (Emphasis added.)), aff’d without published opinion , 378 F. App’x 598 (8th Cir. 2010); Langer v. Commissioner (Langer II ), T.C. Memo. 1992-46, 63 T.C.M. (CCH) 1900 (1992), aff’d , 989 F.2d 294 (8th Cir. 1993); Langer v. Commissioner (Langer III ), T.C. Memo. 1990-268, 59 T.C.M. (CCH) 740, 746 (1990) (holding petitioners liable for an addition to tax under section 6653(a) for negligence because petitioners’ conduct suggested a “pattern of carelessness” and because petitioners used methods for determining deductions that had “no basis in the law”), aff’d , 980 F.2d 1198 (8th Cir. 1992).

Respondent disallowed $113,194, $67,186, and $84,087 of petitioners’ claimed deductions on Schedules C, Profit or Loss From Business, for 2011-13, respectively, as personal expenses; many of petitioners’ claimed and disallowed expense deductions were identical to those disallowed as personal expenses in Langer I and Langer II , including expenses for parties, gifts, flowers, vases, and holiday decorations, to name a few.

[*4] OPINION

The Commissioner must establish by clear and convincing evidence that, for each year at issue, an underpayment of tax exists and that some portion of the underpayment is due to fraud. Secs. 6663(a), 7454(a); Rule 142(b). The Commissioner must show that the taxpayer intended to conceal, mislead, or otherwise prevent the collection of taxes. Katz v. Commissioner , 90 T.C. 1130, 1143 (1988). The taxpayer’s entire course of conduct may establish the requisite fraudulent intent. Stone v. Commissioner , 56 T.C. 213, 223-224 (1971).

Petitioners conceded in full the deficiencies for 2011-13, and therefore respondent satisfied his burden of proving an underpayment of tax for each year at issue. Respondent established that, for each year at issue, petitioners’ underpayment of tax was fraudulent and that they intended to conceal taxable income and prevent the collection of tax by overstating deductions and claiming nondeductible and obvious personal expenditures as business expenses. See Rahall v. Commissioner , T.C. Memo. 2011-101, 101 T.C.M. (CCH) 1486, 1492 (2011) (“An additional badge of fraud includes a taxpayer disguising nondeductible personal expenditures as business expenses.”). Mr. Langer’s nearly 30 years of experience as a revenue agent and petitioners’ history before this Court for identical issues are relevant considerations in determining whether they had [*5] fraudulent intent. See Beaver v. Commissioner , 55 T.C. 85, 93-94 (1970) (stating that petitioner’s business experience is a relevant consideration in determining whether he had fraudulent intent). Petitioners’ repeated concealment of income by overstating deductions exemplifies a pattern of fraudulent behavior, and their explanations are implausible and unpersuasive. See McGraw v. Commissioner , 384 F.3d 965, 971 (8th Cir. 2004) (“[A] consistent pattern of sizeable underreporting of income * * * and unsatisfactory explanations for such underreporting also can establish fraud.”), aff’g Butler v. Commissioner , T.C. Memo. 2002-314; Sanchez v. Commissioner , T.C. Memo. 2014-174, at *17 (stating that “a pattern of conduct that evidences an intent to mislead” is one of the “badges of fraud” from which fraudulent intent can be inferred), aff’d , ___ F. App’x ___, 2016 WL 7336626 (9th Cir. Dec. 19, 2016); Bruce Goldberg, Inc. v. Commissioner , T.C. Memo. 1989-582, 58 T.C.M. (CCH) 519, 529 (1989) (“[F]raud may sometimes be inferred from a pattern of overstating deductions.”). Accordingly, petitioners are liable for the fraud penalties under section 6663 for all years at issue.

[*6] To reflect the foregoing,

Decision will be entered under Rule 155 .

Footnotes

1Unless otherwise indicated, all section references are to the Internal Revenue Code in effect for the taxable years at issue, and all Rule references are to the Tax Court Rules of Practice and Procedure.

[End of Document]